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Cancerous diseases

What is cancer?

One of the characteristics of cancer is the rapid proliferation of abnormal cells with unusual growth, which can then invade neighboring parts of the body and migrate to other organs.

This phenomenon, called metastasis, is the main cause of death from cancer.

Cancerous diseases

The most common cancers are:

breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, stomach cancer, and skin cancer.

The most frequent causes of cancerous diseases

Cancer arises from the transformation of normal cells into tumor cells, a multi-step process that usually starts with a precancerous lesion and then develops into a malignant tumor. These mutations are the consequence of interactions between genetic factors specific to the individual and external agents classified in three categories, namely:

   ü  chemical carcinogens such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxin, or arsenic.

   ü  Physical carcinogens, such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation.

   ü  Biological carcinogens such as infections caused by certain viruses, bacteria, or parasites.

The incidence of cancer increases dramatically with age, probably due to the increasing accumulation of specific cancer risk factors and the fact that cell renewal mechanisms generally become less effective with age.

how to reduce the incidence of cancer?

Currently, 30-50% of cancer cases can be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing evidence-based prevention strategies. The burden of cancer can also be reduced through early detection and appropriate treatment and care of patients. Many cancers have a high cure rate if detected early and treated properly.

Prevention of cancer

   ü  abstaining from smoking and avoiding alcohol abuse.

   ü  vaccinating against HPV and hepatitis B.

   ü  avoiding exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the use of artificial solar cells.

   ü  by lowering its exposure to atmospheric pollution and indoor air pollution.

   ü  Assuring the safe and acceptable use of radiation in healthcare.

   ü  eating a balanced diet of fruits and vegetables and doing some physical activity.

Rapid Identification

Early identification

Treatment is more likely to be successful, with higher chances of survival, fewer diseases, and lower costs, if cancer is diagnosed quickly.

Identifying cancers at the earliest phase and eliminating delays in treatment can improve the life of patients.

Early detection has three components:

   ü  Raising awareness of the symptoms of the various forms of cancer and the obligation to consult a         doctor if you have any worries.

   ü  accessibility to clinical testing and diagnostic services.

   ü  and making timely referrals to treatment services.

In the context of diagnosis, cancer prevention must be designed to reduce delays and obstacles, treatment, and care.


It is the goal to find indications of specific cancer or pre-cancer before a patient develops symptoms. When screening does find abnormalities, more tests should be done to determine a diagnosis (positive or negative), and if required, the patient should be guided to the appropriate services for treatment.

Some screening programs are effective for specific types of cancer.

In general, they are more complex and demanding of resources than early diagnosis, as they require special equipment and specialized personnel.

To avoid high false-positive rates, patients are selected for a screening program based on age and risk factors. Early diagnosis requires quality assurance.

Some of the screening methods used:

   ü  HPV testing, cytology, and visual inspection after acetic acid application for cervical cancer.

   ü  mammography for breast cancer in areas with strong health systems.


Correct diagnosis of cancer is mandatory for proper and effective treatment, as each type of cancer requires a specific treatment protocol.

Cancer treatment involves radiation, chemotherapy, and/or surgery. It is necessary to begin by defining the goals of treatment. The important goal is to cure the patient or greatly prolong or improve the quality of life.

This can be accomplished by providing care that contributes to the physical, psychosocial, and spiritual well-being of the patient, as well as by providing palliative care to the patient with terminal cancer.

Other cancers, like testicular seminoma or various types of childhood leukemias and lymphomas, if correctly treated, also have high recovery rates, including cases where cancer cells have migrated to other parts of the body.

Cancer mortality can be reduced by detecting and treating. If detected quickly and treated by best practices, some popular types of cancer, such as breast, cervical, oral cavity, and colorectal cancer, have high recovery success rates.

Palliative care services

Palliative care aims to provide physical, emotional, social, and spiritual support to 90% of people with cancer and their families.

The need for palliative care is strong in places with high concentrations of advanced cancer patients, for whom the chances of recovery are limited.
To provide palliative care to patients and to reduce their suffering and that of their families, effective public health strategies that integrate community and home-based care are needed.


Improving access to oral morphine for moderate and severe cancer pain, which more than 80% of patients with advanced illness, is urgently recommended.

The deadliest cancers in the world are lung cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and breast cancer.

1. About one-third of cancer deaths are attributable to the top five behavioral and dietary risk factors:

   ü  High body mass index

   ü  Low intake of fruits and vegetables

   ü  Physical inactivity

   ü  Smoking, and alcohol consumption

2. Cancer-causing infections such as hepatitis and human papillomavirus (HPV) account for up to 25% of cancer cases in low- and middle-income countries.


You can also watch the following video:

referred by Cancer Treatment Centers of America - CTCA (What is cancer? What causes cancer and how is it treated?)




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