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Understand the Covid-19



An epidemic of pneumonia, described at the time as viral in nature and of unknown cause, appeared in the city of Wuhan in December 2019.

The new virus « coronavirus », in China was identified on January 9, 2020, named SARS-CoV-2. This coronavirus causes a disease called « Covid-19 », by the World Health Organization - WHO.

Since March 11, 2020, the epidemic is now global, the WHO calls the global situation of Covid-19 a pandemic.

The coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause diseases ranging from a simple cold to more severe pathologies.

Understand the Covid-19

The pathologies associated with coronaviruses

The coronaviruses can be pathogenic in mammals and birds of which they cause various diseases more or less serious as:

  ü  Respiratory infections, such as the common cold, have a seasonal evolution, with peaks in spring and winter.

  ü  SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), caused by SARS-CoV, was identified in 2003. This virus is at the origin of an epidemic that began in late 2002 in China and caused around 800 deaths.

  ü  The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome is caused by the coronavirus MERS-CoV identified in 2012.
    According to the Ministry of Health in June 2015, the epidemic remains limited to the Arabian                Peninsula.
    The outbreak began in late December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, and has rapidly spread worldwide.

  ü  A respiratory disease caused by an emerging coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 called Covid-19                         (Coronavirus Disease-19).

Coronavirus transmission

The disease is transmitted by:

  ü  By emission of tiny contagious secretions by a carrier: by sneezing, coughing, or in case of close contact in the absence of protective measures.

  ü  By the air, in a confined space.

  ü  By indirect contact, via objects or surfaces contaminated by a carrier whose virus is transmitted to a        healthy person who handles these objects, when he or she puts his or her hands to the mouth.

  ü  By direct physical contact between a carrier and a healthy person, where the virus is transmitted to the healthy person when he or she puts his or her hands to the mouth.

The lifetime of the coronavirus on surfaces

« These figures were obtained by projecting virus-laden droplets using small aerosol cans, which is far from reality », warns Dr. Bruno Grandbastien.

The life span of the virus depends on temperature and humidity. Indeed, coronaviruses persist more at 22-25°C and a humidity level of 40-50%. They are less viable at higher temperatures.

« And this type of virus does not survive long outside. On surfaces, the amount of virus decreases by half in 2 to 3 hours. », reassures Dr. Fabien Squinazi.

The lifetime of the coronavirus on the different surfaces:




24 hours


3 days

Stainless steel

3 days


4 days


4 days


4 hours

Skin and hair

a few minutes to a few hours


up to 12 hours

 Prevention of coronavirus

Simple gestures can protect your health and those around you by limiting the transmission of the virus:

  ü  Regular and effective hand washing. It is recommended to run them underwater, Soap them with liquid soap and rub them for 30 seconds, A complete wash should include the nails, fingertips, palms and outside of the hands, knuckles and wrists, rinse with clean water, and dry hands on a clean towel or single-use hand towel.

  ü  The hydroalcoholic gel, is an ally against epidemics.

  ü  Wearing a mask is mandatory to avoid spreading the disease through coughing and sneezing.

  üAvoid touching your face.

  üMaintain a distance of at least 1.5 meters from any caller.

  ü  Greeting without shaking hands, without hugs.

  ü  Air the rooms well.


Prevention of coronavirus

Symptoms of coronavirus

Infected people develop a mild to moderate form of the disease and recover without needing to be hospitalized. The symptoms of this virus are:

       1.       Most common symptoms:

ü  Fever

ü  loss of taste or smell

ü  cough

ü  fatigue

      2.       Less common symptoms:

ü  diarrhea

ü  sore throat and headache

ü  aches and pains

ü  redness or irritation of the eyes

ü  Rash or discoloration of the skin

      3.       Severe symptoms:

ü  difficulty breathing or shortness of breath

ü  loss of speech

ü  chest pain

ü  difficulty moving around or confusion

Treatments against covid-19

If in doubt of being affected by the disease, avoid contact with people around them. Limit the movements, and do not visit the doctor or the emergency room, to avoid strong contamination.

if the symptoms are presented by cough and fever, it must remain at home, and avoid contact. Teleconsultation with the attending doctor who will be able to offer him a consultation and a diagnostic test according to the symptoms he presents.

If the symptoms aggravate with difficulty in respiration and signs of choking, call the SAMU, who will decide what to do.




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